UTMN Scientists Cultivating New Types of Wheat

Research and Innovations 4 October 2017
Today, preserving the genetic diversity of plants is especially crucial, as it decreases every year. According to preliminary estimates, by the middle of XXI century, the number of plant species might be reduced by half. That is why cultivating new types of plants is of theoretical and practical interest to agricultural biology and ecology.   



Scientist from the University of Tyumen are working on solving this problem in Tyumen region. One of the research objects is spring wheat – the most common grain crop in the region. To create new types of wheat, the scientists use mutagenesis (directed plant mutation, which brings about the development of new features) and crossbreeding different types of a plant. 

UTMN scientists – Professor Nina Bome and Associate Professor Natalia Kolokolova – worked with scientists from the Lomonosov Moscow State University and the Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences to study how different concentrations of the mutagen phosphemid impact agrobiological features of common spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

The research was based on the chemical mutagenesis, a method which allows for the creation of new mutations in a short time. As a starting material, scientists used both Russian (Skent 1, Skent 3) and foreign (Cara, Hybrid, Lutescens 70) strains of wheat, as well as their hybrids. The specificity of the mutagen was tested on Cara, Skent 3 and a hybrid form of the two. 

The results of the research show that phosphemid has a significant impact on the morphometric parameters of germs (in laboratory tests) and on the morphological features of a plant (in field tests). Moreover, the second generation of plants showed a spectrum of visible changes. Phosphemid caused mutations of stems, ears and leaves, which affects the growth and development of crops. 

The researchers discovered that, depending on the genotype of the mutagen concentration, it can either damage the plant or give it new beneficial features. Thus, the first generation of hybrids, after 0,01% concentration mutagen treatment, appeared to have an increased mass of seeds and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew. At the same time, the same concentration used on the original breeds Cara and Skent 3 decreased seed production to 67 and 57% respectively.      

The biologists noted that 0,002 and 0,01% phosphemid concentrations, used on the strains and the interspecies hybrids, are efficient for the cultivation of new types of plants, therefore this mutagen can be recommended for mutation breeding. 



Source: UTMN Department of Strategic Communications

Link to Russian version: https://www.utmn.ru/presse/novosti/nauka-segodnya/445867/

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