Analytical two-dimensional matrices can be interpreted in this particular instance as a region of an analyzed surface that contains many micro-regions, each of which in turn contains its own type of oligonucleotides (DNA chips or genetic chips), immunoglobulins or other molecules or structures interacting with analytes.
Detection of an analyte binding to a micro-region is most often performed optically (using fluorescence microscopy, depolarization, light scattering, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, etc.).
The number of micro-regions in the matrix is limited only by the area of the latter, which makes it possible to analyze many analytes and/or their parameters simultaneously.
Example of a 3x3mm matrix, with binding microregions for 1800 different particles (Andreyev, D.; Zybailov, B. “On-flow analysis and single-cell sequencing with deterministic barcoding”, Analyticon-2019, Apr.29-May 01, San Francisco, CA, US (IBC fabrication)